Do you understand what is really happening and what lies on the road ahead?
The world tilted slightly on 9/11/2001 when inferno descended on the World Trade Centre, killing 2,977 people. Today, the world is moving at full tilt.
America fell into a big ditch in Iraq and a moat in Afghanistan while chasing the masterminds of the 9/11 terror attacks. Invading Iraq and Afghanistan was perhaps the greatest strategic military gamble in America’s history, just as the 1956 invasion of Suez Canal in Egypt became Britain’s Achilles’ heel that ultimately condemned it to a ‘’second tier ex-King’’ status. Punishing the whole for the sin of a few is expensive, unwise and counterproductive. To avenge the 9/11 terror act, America could have targeted the ‘Centre of Gravity’ (the fingers that sinned) in both Iraq and Afghanistan and clinically cut them off. *Why kill a fly with a sledgehammer*?
The invasion led to the de-legitimisation of the American Empire arising from haemorrhaging military expenditure, humongous debt profile and radical de-industrialization. Thus, the evolution of America as a sole Super Power froze. Today, America is undeniably weaker, looking like a self-disrobed King in a decaying empire. As the twin-goals of enthroning democracy and peace remained elusive and Afghanistan increasingly became human meat-grinder, America’s mystic vanished. Consequently, the Taliban became more emboldened when they discovered that the red comb on the head and neck of America’s chicken was not, after all, the burning, hot fire it was assumed to be, but fleshy red meat.
*Every Empire is 50% transcendental. The fear-factor is part of the myth, and thisAmerica has lost.*
According to Watson Institute of International Public Affairs at Brown University, the war on terrorism has cost a whopping $6.4 Trillion of America’s tax payers money, total death of 801,000 people out of which 335,000 were civilians and 21 million displaced due to violence. Twenty years after, the P&L balance sheet of the war venture shows America made a big loss. Just like the Afghan people. The world, too, lost. Then who gained? Terrorism has gone global. It used to be as scarce as hen’s teeth, but has since become flesh dwelling among us, growing by leaps and bounds, and defying the law of gravity.
*We are at a very dangerous moment in history. The ship of ‘a world- in-change’ faces a wicked wave in the middle of a deep ocean, making navigation a nerve-racking ordeal. Everywhere, there are blinking red lights.*
How will the emerging geopolitical superstructure stack up after the reboot? And where is the Africa action- plan in the redrawn world?
The triumph of the totalitarian Taliban in Afghanistan after decades of back-to-back wars with two super powers; the circular crises in the Middle East; North Korea’s new nuclear threat; Nigeria’s rapidly collapsing House; growing numbers of failed, failing and fragile states; China’s unhealthy monopoly of the global supply chain; a jejune Europe; a jittery Japan; a rascally Russia; a bullish China; NATO’s on-going tango over the Black Sea; Taiwan-Hong Kong impending forceful occupation at a time when the world’s sole Super Power’s influence is going south. *These are some of the blinking red lights, signalling frightening impending danger.*
Nature, too, is angry. Her eyes are hot red. The biggest red light is Climate imbalance. The UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, in the report titled ‘’a code red for humanity, *noted ‘the 1.5-degree threshold is perilously close, as the world’s presently 1.1 degrees Celsius is higher than pre-industrial levels*. The average surface temperature of the Earth has increased by about 1.0F degree. While specific humidity is on the increase, the relative humidity is decreasing. Some places are witnessing unprecedented rainfall, a preliminary warning to another biblical ‘’Noah- flood’, while others are getting hotter and drier, accelerating desert encroachment, yet some are getting abnormally cold.
*You can’t cheat nature and get away with it!*
Overpopulation is yet another blinking red light. Population experts have warned with a tone of finality that the world has reached its maximum capacity of almost 8 billion people. The 81 million people annual top up amounts to excess luggage which comes with interest and default charges from Nature’s Bank. True, 100 years ago, the world’s population stood at 1.9 billion, today it is 7.9 Billion, whereas the world’s land (149 million sq.km) and water (361 million sq.km.) areas are fixed. As Americans will say ‘’something’s gotta give”. However, the Globalists’ proposal, ‘’eliminate a few to save the rest’’ is stomach-churning. Author Dan Brown, in ‘’Inferno’’, speaks on their behalf:*Population growth is an exponential progression occurring within a system of finite resources. The end will arrive very abruptly. Our experience will not be that of slowly running out of gas. It will be more like driving off a cliff* Now I understand why Da Vinci said 500 years ago that, *the infinite works of Nature are woven together in a unity filled with marvellous but sometimes dangerous patterns*”.
President Bill Clinton has warned of possible aliens invasion of the world, which is another blinking red light that regular people don’t pay attention to. Our scientists’ persistent communication with aliens, who are reported to be more technologically advanced than we are, can backfire. What if the aliens also decide to visit our world to have dinner in our living rooms or worship in our churches and mosques or take a nap on our family bed someday?
According to the serial entrepreneur, Elon Musk, *something in the universe is killing everything*’’.
Professor Robin Hanson earlier came up with the Great Filter theory, *somewhere along the trajectory of life’s development, there are massive and common challenges that end life before it becomes widespread in the universe*.’’ Elon Musk adds, *Hopefully, there will never be a WW3, but the probability of creating a self-sustaining city on Mars after World War 3 is low*’’. Musk concludes that, *in future there are filters that should concern us. Maybe we will be hit by an asteroid, an earthquake, a pandemic, or maybe robots could rise and destroy us or maybe it is just impossible to make a star ship*’.
The world is severely pressed for time in turning red to green! Worse still, America that used to serve as the World’s Inspector General of Police (WIGP) is presently nursing a severe psychological trauma following the recent ‘August Embarrassment’ of ‘’two own-goals’’ scored in Afghanistan. Departing hurriedly on 31st of August 2021 without achieving its goals did incalculable psychological damage to America’s image, and losing 13 solders to suicide bombers on the eve of her departure amounts to ego-crushing! Of what use then is the 20 years experience when America did not foresee that the 300,000 Afghan Horses she backed cannot withstand 48 hours of challenge from the 75,000 Taliban Horses? It speaks volume about the size of decay in the US that despite the fundamentally flawed evacuation project in Kabul, no heads rolled. *String of military losses sustained against external enemies is one of the signs of a collapsing empire*. Rome went through this phase. Ditto UK. America has had Vietnam, Somalia, Iraq, Syria, Libya, and now Afghanistan!
There is an irreversible seismic shift occurring – the geopolitical traditional powerhouses are ghastly losing their edge to new players. For instance, Europe, faced with an atrophying population, innovation, vision and cohesion, is up against some indomitable state actors: economically from China, militarily from Russia, politically from America and religiously from the Islamic world of Arabia. All these while, America, as a result of self-inflicted ’imperial overstretch’, is gasping for air.
*The global balance of power is falling apart as the balance of terror holds sway*!
On the 31st of August, the Taliban declared themselves winners and on 1st of September, 2021, held a parade with dozens of abandoned American armoured vehicles in Kabul. The biggest dilemma facing the world today is how best to tackle the Kabul chaos: leave Taliban to its fate or engage them? Meanwhile, some of the Afghans and Taliban fighters possess unique skill-set in explosive belt and vest production. Add these to the abandoned American and Russian military and civil infrastructure, estimated to be in excess of $100billion at their disposal. Clearly, the world needs to think perpendicularly whilst dealing with Taliban 2.0, so that the CIA-M16-KGB trained Taliban do not metamorphose into a 21st century Frankenstein Monster.
The saying *whatever happens in Las Vegas stays in Las Vegas’’ is not going to hold true of Afghanistan. Whatever happens in Kabul in the months ahead will not stay in Kabul but have a ricocheting effect worldwide*
It will probably require the services of a “Tesseographer”, those versed in the art of identifying symbols and messages found in the shape and configurations of tea leaves, in decoding where the world is headed. In computing, especially after system or power failure, rebooting is the process by which a running computer is reconfigured either intentionally or unintentionally. This could happen when the software applications powering the operating system are outdated and the computer begins to work sluggishly. Sometimes crashes can happen leading to an irretrievable loss of personal files and photos that are not backed up. In the same vein, the World’s Computer Operating System (WOS) is obsolete and the made-in-America ’software applications’ like Capitalism, Democracy, Globalisation, etc. running on it are failing and causing global friction.
*Unfortunately, unlike computers, the world has no BACKUP, no duplicate*!
The three musketeers of space travel – Richard Branson, ElonMusk and Jeff Bezos – told us that only one million people can possibly be accommodated in space by 2050. The cost is $55million per ticket! Here is the major concern: *for every weapon man has made, man has always used it*
The World has to pray that no nation with nuclear capability will be tempted or provoked to nuke another as a way of unilaterally resolving the complicated geopolitical logjam since the second-strike-nuclear-capabilities in the hands of the Big7 nuke nations are capable of destroying the entire world seven times over.
*The world is moving as it should? Or is it*?
*Afghanistan’s Next Chapter: Breakthrough or Breakdown? Japan or Libya way*?
On 15th of August 2021 as the Taliban overran Kabul, Zabihullah Mujahid, their spokesperson declared on CNN “… *our thoughts, ideology, beliefs are unchanged… We shall be patient as we take the jihad to the whole world…The Jihad will not end until the last day*’’. That is what I call the colour of trouble, which requires a global response, before events in Kabul snowball into a bigger inferno that will cascade globally in the months ahead.
The Kabul airport dusk explosion on the 26th of August 2021 that claimed the lives of 13 American soldiers and 90 Afghans civilians might be used by the Hawks to justify why President Biden should take the following steps against the Taliban.
• Imposing paralysing sanctions on Kabul.
• Denying them international recognition
• Cutting off oxygen supply by freezing their accounts and assets overseas.
• Give covert support to the Anti-Taliban fighters like National Resistance Front (NRF) of Amrullah Saleh, Vice President in the toppled government of Ashraf Ghani, and Ahmad Massoud, son of the slain commander of the Northern Alliance militias that partnered with the US to drive Taliban from power in 2001 and the remnants of the Afghan National Defence Security Force and HaqqaniNetwork.
• Promote leadership tussle (divide and rule) through organised chaos, depriving them the benefits of the much needed unity for a cohesive and stable government.
Absolute care must be taken to not allow Afghanistan to become another Libya. *Discretion is the better part of valour*.
*The Hawks position, if adopted, will beget Taliban 3.0 with nuclear capability*. But is there anyone out there who needs another North Korea? It will push Afghanistan into a marriage of convenience with Russia, China, Iran, Pakistan and North Korea. China will be too happy to quickly integrate Afghanistan in the Silk Roads initiatives, while North Korea’s ‘’Rocket Boy’’ will do the needful by sharing the nuclear bomb code with the Taliban! *The enemy of my enemy is my friend.* President Xi and Putin have both begun to woo the Taliban. Hear President Xi, ‘’China is ready to deepen friendly and cooperative relations with Afghanistan’’.
The good news is that President Biden can still win the war, even though America carelessly lost the battle. In politics, *there are no permanent enemies but permanent interests. Losing the battle, winning the war, is greater gain.*
Biden needs what I call *AE+4Rs’ Strategy (Acceptance, Engagement, Rapprochement, Reconciliation, Re-construction and Re-integration*).
First, Acceptance. The West should recognise the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, and Taliban as the de jure or de facto government. To President Biden the whole situation looks like a malaria- dream, but it is not. Two, Engagement. The warriors- turned- administrators should be engaged in theireffort to form a stable government. Those Afghans who plunged to death 33,000 feet above the sea level while desperately clinging to a climbing aeroplane with a view to escaping the in-coming terror from Taliban totalitarianism should be posthumously proved wrong that Taliban 1.0 and 2.0 are poles apart. Three, Rapprochement. This should be aimed at removing the toga of political pariahs. Four, a Truth and Reconciliation commission, uniting warring factions should be vigorously pursued with a win-win mentality. To Rebuild Afghanistan, all hands must be on deck carrying cement and sand, not AK47 and explosive vests. And five, Re-construction. Duplicating the Marshall Aid Plan, to be tagged *BIDEN AFGHAN AID PLAN*(BAAP), will help Afghanistan to become a responsible and responsive nation. It worked in Japan. Six, Re-integration. As the Taliban takes its baby- steps in nation-building, re-integration should be at the end game.
*UN & AFGHANISTAN: THE 5-MUST WIN BATTLES*
For the Taliban government to enjoy AE+4Rs, the UN should immediately engage them as follows.
First, the Taliban government must be made to respect *Universal Values such as Human Rights, Multilateralism, Right conduct, Non-violence, and No to Slavery.* Second, respect the rights of women, children and foreigners living in Afghanistan including the so-called ‘’infidel’ or Christians. Needless to say that about 90% of technological innovations in the last 100 years came from the Western-Judaism civilization,be it Google, iPhone, F-35, cyber security and the drip irrigation that the Taliban depends upon for daily survival. The Taliban cannot be allowed to get away with referring to them as “infidels’’. Third, the Taliban must renounce violence and the planned spread of militant medieval jihad. There is no compulsion in religion. Fourth, they must form an inclusive Government of National Unity. Fifth and most importantly, the *UN must midwife another 5+2 “Authors of Afghanistan Next Chapter” (AANC 5+2) patterned after the Iranian 5+1, which coincidentally was the brainchild of Presidents Obama and Biden*
*The new 5+2 should have President Obama as Ambassador Plenipotentiary/Chief Executive*
It should consist of seven frontline countries, America, UK, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Malaysia and Pakistan. Their responsibilities should include coming up with an *AFGHANISTAN CREATED FUTURE (ACF) 2040* what the country should look like in 2040 which should dwarf today’s Qatar and UAE. It should also seek to raise $350 billion (private + public funds) for Afghanistan’s re-construction (America, $150 billion, Qatar, Saudi and UAE $50Billion each, others $50billion). Also it should help arrest brain drain and arrange for massive skill-up of Afghans and where possible source for competent hands from UAE, Qatar and Turkey to handle some portfolios in the new government pending stability. Finally, it should mobilise international investors and organise an investment road-show to market “ACF 2040” as soon as possible.
Why bend backward for Afghanistan? So many reasons. The Taliban are good fighters but reconstructing a ruined country calls for a different skill-set and mentality. Also, Afghanistan is the world’s largest producer of opium and heroin, and there may be ‘’opium flood’’ if Taliban runs out of cash to govern. In addition, there may be a boom in the black market for sales of weapons abandoned by the Afghan military, which will boost terrorism worldwide. Even more important, winning the terror war in Afghanistan will serve as a catalyst (Monroe Theory) to winning it globally, especially in a country like Nigeria where the lives of 200 million people are presently at risk due to the activities of Boko Haram jihadists and Fulani herdsmen that seem to enjoy tacit official backing as alleged by Governor Ortom of Benue state and a retired senior Military Intelligence Officer, Commodore Kunle Olawumi.
All said, Afghanistan’s breakthrough (i.e. Japan model, full options) is desirable and achievable. Without a doubt, a free, thriving, prosperous, responsible and responsive Afghanistan is in the world’s best interest. But Breakdown (i.e. Libya model, full options) is starring the world fearlessly on the face. A fratricidal civil war between the Taliban sworn enemy, ISIS-K, and the Taliban government is on the horizon. The news coming out of the country is scary: the UN says ‘’food supply will run out and medical facilities will collapse within 30 days’’. The former Afghanistan Minister of Finance, Anwar up-Had Ahady says ‘’cash will dry up and the economy will collapse within 60 days’’.
This is President Biden’s leadership litmus test hour, either he accelerates peace or escalates terrorism. America should grit her teeth and work for Afghanistan’s re-construction the same way it worked with Japan and Germany in 1945 after WW2.
*For there is no Military Answer to the Taliban Question. Again.*
History beckons on Hibatullah Akhundzada, Taliban supreme leader, to steer the ship of the nation to a prosperous harbour. It will do him and Afghans a lot of good if he reads ‘’My Vision’’ and ‘’Flashes of Thought’’ by Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, his Sunni Muslim brother, together with ‘’Reflections, the Mahathir Years’’ by Mohammed Mahathir, to learn how two Muslim countries, the UAE and Malaysia transformed using western technology and know-how. He should trash Taliban’s plan of ‘’patiently spreading militant medieval jihad globally”, for that is Kabul’s ultimate highway to Dante’s hell. Besides, the world is over terrorised already.
As the world marks the 20th anniversary of 9/11 let us soberly ask ourselves: How did we get here and how do we prevent a re-occurrence of 9/11? *America should look into the mirror on 9/11/2021 to see the culprit: she*
To prevent another 9/11, America and the West should stop merchandising Western Values as Universal values. The two are not the same. Same sex marriage (Adam- marry- Adam or Eve marry Eve), for instance, is a Western value, and should not be promoted as a Universal value with nations bullied and punished for rejecting it. Likewise, Gender Equality, Capitalism, Globalisation, Democracy are all Western values that should be made optional for none-Western nations.
*The radical de-legitimisation of America Empire arose from decades of her unbridled desire to impose her values on others forcefully.*
Regarding population explosion, the new Thomas Malthus’s tagged “Globalists” who are secretly working to impose strict limits on reproduction through the back door must be told that ‘’explosion’’ is relative. Consequently, there can’t be a universal solution to population explosion. The issue should be categorised by the UN and treated as an internal policy of each country. If Europe at 700 million people believes they are over populated and China at 1.4billion believes she is underpopulated, then so be it. China just approved the removal of a ceiling on one-child policy. There can’t be a one size-fit all solution to the overpopulation issue. Secondly, going forward, the UN must criminalise any suggestion that connotes ‘’eliminate a few to save the rest’’ because that is genocide. The best way to fix overpopulation is to fix the scandalous income inequality between the ‘’North’’ and the ‘’South’’ caused by globalisation. The richer North has fewer children per household unlike the poor South-South nations of Africa, Asia and Southern America. One solution is through a deliberate creation of an environment where shared prosperity becomes seamless. The more people that are elevated to middle income in Africa and India, the less efficient the capacity utilisation of children-making factories become.
*Common prosperity is the surest antidote to overpopulation.*
*Secretly creating hybrid strains of disease through genetic engineering and jabbing innocent Africans and Indians and other vulnerable races with a view to limiting population growth will be tantamount to racial genocide and crime against humanity.*
On Climate imbalance, the G7 in their last meeting on June 4th 2021 in Lancaster House, London, agreed to a ‘’plan to end reliance on fuel and diesel-powered cars by 2030”. This is part of a comprehensive Green Belt and Road Initiative, an alternative to China Silk Road and Belt Initiative. The G7 endorsed a ‘’a Nature-compact to protect at least 30% of land and 30% of ocean globally by end of the decade’’. But they are silent on what becomes of Africa, Venezuela, and other countries with fossil-fuel-dependent economies? Yes, climate chaos is real, but a collective win-win solution that factors in Africa’s core interest is required.
*Shaving Africa’s head at her back will be counterproductive, ultimately*. Those countries that destroyed the world ecosystem with pollution, especially China and the West due to over industrialisation should be made to set aside a percentage of their GDP for a *Climate Imbalance Fund*” to fix the mess created. The fund should be at zero interest rate which can be used for the development of Green Technology/ Economy throughout the developing world.
*China vs. America Supremacy Battle fuelling the Global Reboot*
The China Strategy Group which has Eric Schmidt, former Google CEO/Chairman, as member asserted that, *America’s technological leadership is fundamental to its security, prosperity and democratic way of life. But this vital advantage is now at risk with China surging to overtake the US in critical areas*.’’
This is true. Starting from Semiconductor which has leapfrogged oil as the world’s number one key commodity for growth, to Rear Earth, where China recently unveiled a new lab to promote deep-Earth science and advanced detection technologies, to space where the Chinese Martian Rover, Zhurong, is closely trailing NASA, the supremacy battle between the incumbent leader, America, and a bullish China is neck-to-neck.
China races on another front with Beidou, its own GPS system to rival America’s government owned Global Positioning System (GPS). Beidou is presently being used in more than 120 countries including Thailand and Pakistan for monitoring of Ports and guidance in critical rescue operations.
In yet another front, China unveils a plan for a 23,000 mph hypersonic wind tunnel which will put Beijing 30 years ahead of the West. Furthermore, in 2021, China overtook America as a major destination for foreign direct investment (FDI), according to the UK based Centre for Economics and Business Research. China FDI, excluding Finance and Insurance sectors,rose to $144.37 billion in 2020, the highest level since records began in 1983. China has equally come out with Bullet Train (CR400 AF-G) which can operate at 350km/hr. There is the China Artificial Sun which has reached an electron temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius which is comparable to the natural sun. The battle on the 6G, which is the next big thing in telecommunication, is on. 6G is expected to be 100 times faster than 5G. Regarding China Financial Superpower status, she is pushing the internationalisation of Renminbi aggressively, which has led to increase in cross-border portfolio capital inflows into China. According to financial analysts, ‘’by December 2020 foreign holdings of China portfolio investments amounted to $2Trillion as against $400billion in 2009’’.
China has also not done badly in diplomacy. She has succeeded in dividing Europe into two, now we have ‘’friends of China in Europe‘’ which includes Hungary, Ireland, Serbia, and Poland and to some extent, Italy. China has cornered Africa, Russia and most of the Asian countries. She wants and needs Germany, and once she gets her, she gets Europe.
Despite global economic meltdown, China’s Huawei improved in ranking from 49th position in 2020 to 44th position presently, coming from the bottom as 397th in 2010 according to FORTUNE GLOBAL 500, June 2021.
Recently, China announced it now has the ability to manipulate the Planet’s weather over a geographical region, the size of India. The world now has ‘’made-in-China-rain’’ and ‘’made-in-China-snow’’.
Even on the Military front, according to Gen. E Hyten, Commander of US Strategic Command who told a Senate Committee, *America doesn’t have any defence that could deny the employment of the China game-changing hypersonic missiles that will go so fast up to 20 times the speed of sound*
Most significantly, China has continued its prominent progress with regards to innovation. For the second year running, China leads the world in Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)applications. According to the World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO) data of the international fillings for patents, trademarks and industrial designs in 2020.
Of the 275,900 international PCT applications, China had 68,720; America had 59,230; Japan had 50,520; South Korea had 20,060; and Germany 18, 643.
For the 4th consecutive year, China’s Huawei was the top filer with 5,464 published PCT applications; Samsung, 3,093; Mitsubishi, 2,801; LG, 2,173; and the American Qualcomm Inc., 2,173 in a distant 5th position.
*Interestingly, of the top 10 universities filers, 5 of them were Chinese. First time that this has happened.*
According to Professor Li Shunde, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, *quantity of PCT international patent applications represents the innovative strength of a country as well as the competitiveness of its companies*’’. China is rapidly transforming from a major Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) importer into a major IPR quality creator. *Innovation sets pace for the future.*
Even in sports, China is stealing the show and bridging the gap rapidly. In the recently concluded Tokyo 2021 Olympics, she won 38 gold as against USA’s 39.
China is not just interested in hijacking America’s feeding bottle, she equally wants to collect Africa’s feeding bottle as she now exports Cocoa and Garri (Cassava flakes) to Europe with a marketing label ‘’from cassava grown on uncontaminated soil’’. Revenue from Cocoa export is all Ghana and Ivory Coast (and to a small extent, Nigeria) depend upon. Now they have to contend with China for this feeding bottle.
America is down, but not out yet! China is bullish but no crown yet! Europe is out! The Global reboot is only 75% complete. The world is at the last quarter.
To America and the West, the wages of sin is death. The best that can happen to American Empire after reboot is political partial stroke and her chances of full recovery thereafter is 20:80.
To China, the wages of greed and over ambition is economic constipation followed by political cardiac tamponade. China’s banana peel is next door, in Taiwan.
To the rest of the world, the wages of indifference is underdevelopment, hunger and misery.
And to Africa, the wages of hypersomnia is slavery 2.0 in Chinese chains, shackles and manacles.
As the world reboots, Africa needs to wake up from her deep slumber and stop watching cartoons!
She needs to rebuild her continent by harnessing her natural and human resources both on the mainland and in diaspora. The starting point is education. What matters most in our increasingly hype-competitive, innovative-driven economy is not what you know but what you can fix with what you know. The education system is in shambles. It is incapable of producing good leaders in politics, economy and technology. The skills required in our highly complicated world to become informed citizens or secure the future of the continent are radically different from those required historically. Waiting on African governments to re-imagine education, one has to wait for ever. To win the brain-race for our Race and stop others from stealing our feeding bottle, Africa-focused individuals should come together in their respective communities to build a new foundation in education, geared towards problem-solving, critical thinking and good citizenship. Education is inherently local, after all.
*Africa, think. It is a self-help, dog-eat-dog world. Salvation lies within*
AUTHOR: Tim Akano…
Articles published in our Graffiti section are strictly the opinion of the writers and do not represent the views of Ripples Nigeria or its editorial stand.
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